IEE WIRING REGULATIONS 16TH EDITION PDF

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The current sixteenth edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations, also known as BS , to which this book conforms, was published in June The philosophy . 16th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated By the same author Electrical Installation Work Wiring 3MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF. We will show in this book that drawing the human body need not be so difficult. in interpretive point of view, it allo The 5 Second Rule: Transform your Life.


Iee Wiring Regulations 16th Edition Pdf

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16th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations. Explained & Illustrated. Brian Scaddan 7th Edition. Used alongside the regulations themselves, this book is the key to safe. items With the 18th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations come new recommendations as well as increased levels of regulation. Whether that's in the form. This book builds on the basic knowledge and techniques covered in 16th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, providing the information and.

As an alternative we can use our knowledge of the relationship between conductor resistance and area, e.

Hence we have achieved compliance with the shock-risk constraints. However, in TT systems where the mass of earth is part of the fault path, the maximum values of Zs given in Tables 41 B1, B2 and D of the Regulations may be hard to satisfy.

Added to this, climatic conditions will alter the resistance of the earth in such a way that Zs may be satisfactory in wet weather but not in very dry. For construction sites and agricultural environments this value is reduced to 25 V. In a healthy circuit the same current passes through the phase coil, the load, and back through the neutral coil.

Hence the magnetic effects of phase and neutral currents cancel out. In a faulty circuit, either phase to earth or neutral to earth, these currents are no longer equal. Therefore the out-of-balance current produces some residual magnetism in the core. As this magnetism is alternating, it links with the turns of the search coil, inducing an EMF in it.

This EMF in turn drives a current through the trip coil, causing operation of the tripping mechanism. It should be noted that a phase-to-neutral fault will appear as a load, and hence the RCD will not operate for this fault.

A three-phase RCD works on the same out of balance principle, in this case the currents flowing in the three phases when they are all equal, sum to zero, hence there is no resultant magnetism. Even 41 Earthing Figure 14a Residual current device Figure 14b Three-phase RCD Figure 14c Connections for single phase 42 Earthing if they are unequal, the out of balance current flows in the neutral which cancels out this out of balance current.

Figure 14 b shows the arrangement of a three-phase RCD, and Figure 14 c , how it can be connected for use on single-phase circuits. Nuisance tripping Certain appliances such as cookers, water heaters and freezers tend to have, by the nature of their construction and use, some leakage currents to earth. These are quite normal, but could cause the operation of an RCD protecting an entire installation.

This can be overcome by using split-load consumer units, where socket outlet circuits are protected by a 30 mA RCD, leaving all other circuits controlled by a normal mains switch.

16th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations: Design and Verification of Electrical Installations

One area where the use of 30 mA RCDs is required is in the protection of socket outlets intended for the connection of portable appliances for use outside the main equipotential zone.

Hence, socket outlets in garages or even within the main premises which are likely to be used for supplying portable tools such as lawn mowers and hedge trimmers must be protected by an RCD rated at 30 mA or less.

All other equipment outside the main equipotential zone should, in the event of an earth fault, disconnect in 0.

An exception to the RCD requirement is where fixed equipment is connected to the supply via a socket outlet, provided that some means of preventing the socket outlet being used for hand-held appliances is ensured. The confusion may have arisen because of a lack of understanding of earthing and bonding. Hopefully, this chapter will rectify the 43 Earthing situation.

In general the only Supplementary bonding required in a domestic premises is in a bathroom. By now we should know why bonding is necessary; the next question, however, is to what extent bonding should be carried out.

This is perhaps answered best by means of question and answer examples: 1 Q: Why do I need to bond the hot and cold taps and a metal kitchen sink together? Surely they are all joined anyway?

A: In most sinks the holes for connection of the taps are usually surrounded by a plastic insert which tends to insulate the taps from the sink. The hot and cold taps are both parts of different systems and could originate from outside the equipotential zone.

These, therefore, could be extraneous conductive parts and may need to be bonded together, although there is no specific requirement in BS to do this. A: Supplementary bonding is only necessary when extraneous conductive parts are simultaneously accessible with exposed conductive parts and the disconnection time for the circuit concerned cannot be achieved.

These, therefore, could be extraneous conductive parts and may need to be bonded together, although there is no specific requirement in BS to do this. A: Supplementary bonding is only necessary when extraneous conductive parts are simultaneously accessible with exposed conductive parts and the disconnection time for the circuit concerned cannot be achieved.

A: In general, no. Apart from the fact that most window frames will not introduce a potential from anywhere, the part of the window most likely to be touched is the opening portion, to which it would not be practicable to bond.

There may be a case for the bonding of patio doors, which could be considered earthy with rain running from the lower portion to the earth. However, once again the part most likely to be touched is the sliding section, to which it is not possible to bond. In any case there would need to be another simultaneously accessible part to warrant considering any bonding. A: Bathrooms are particularly hazardous areas with regard to shock risk, as body resistance is drastically reduced when wet.

Hence, supplementary bonding between exposed conductive parts must be carried out in addition to their existing CPCs. Also of course, taps and metal baths may need bonding together, and to other extraneous and exposed conductive parts. It may be of interest to note that in older premises a toilet basin may be connected into a cast iron collar which then tees outside into a cast iron soil pipe.

This arrangement will clearly introduce earth potential into the bathroom, and hence the collar should be bonded to any simultaneously accessible conductive parts. This may require an unsightly copper earth strap. However, if these bonding conductors are connected to exposed conductive parts, they must be the same size as the CPC connected to the exposed conductive part, once again subject to the minimum sizes mentioned. A: No. These items will not introduce a potential into the equipotential zone from outside, and cannot therefore be regarded as extraneous conductive parts.

A: There is an increasing amount of plastic plumbing installations being used in modern houses for both domestic hot and cold 45 Earthing water and C.

If the pipework is plastic but terminates in copper at taps, radiators etc. The Faraday cage In one of his many experiments, Michael Faraday — placed an assistant in an open-sided cube which was then covered in a conducting material and insulated from the floor. When this cage arrangement was charged to a high voltage, the assistant found that he could move freely within it touching any of the sides, with no adverse effects.

The run is some 25 m and the external loop impedance of the TN—S system is not known. Is there a shock risk, and if so, how could it be rectified? Barrier A part providing a defined degree of protection against contact with live parts, from any usual direction. Class 2 equipment Equipment in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but in which additional safety precautions such as supplementary insulation are provided.

There is no provision for the connection of exposed metalwork of the equipment to a protective conductor, and no reliance upon precautions to be taken in the fixed wiring of the installation. Circuit protective conductor A protective conductor connecting exposed conductive parts of equipment to the main earthing terminal. Direct contact Contact of persons or livestock with live parts.

Enclosure A part providing an appropriate degree of protection of equipment against certain external influences and a defined degree of protection against contact with live parts from any direction.

Exposed conductive part A conductive part of equipment which can be touched and which is not a live part but which may become live under fault conditions.

External influence Any influence external to an electrical installation which affects the design and safe operation of that installation. Extraneous conductive part A conductive part liable to introduce a potential, generally earth potential, and not forming part of the electrical installation. Fault current A current resulting from a fault. Thanks in advance for your time.

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Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including site.However, if these bonding conductors are connected to exposed conductive parts, they must be the same size as the CPC connected to the exposed conductive part, once again subject to the minimum sizes mentioned.

This EMF in turn drives a current through the trip coil, causing operation of the tripping mechanism. Unfortunately, these requirements presuppose that the person carrying out the testing is in possession of all the design data, which is only likely to be the case on the larger commercial or industrial projects. All of these foregoing requirements ensure that conductor insulation is undamaged when an overload occurs.

There should be no risk of mechanical damage or un-authorised interference and only one controller should be associated with any fence.

16th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations: Inspection, Testing & Certification

Hence, if we connect a voltmeter between a live part e. However, if in any doubt, use method 3. Remove any items of equipment likely to be damaged by the test, such as dimmer switches, electronic timers etc.

There is no provision for the connection of exposed metalwork of the equipment to a protective conductor, and no reliance upon precautions to be taken in the fixed wiring of the installation.